For Beginners and Students

Are you interested in using different number bases, or you’re studying number bases in school? The articles on this page are a great place to start, particularly for dozenal (also called duodecimal, or base twelve). You can look at A Brief Introduction to Dozenal Counting to get an idea of what exactly dozenal counting is. An even simpler and easier way to grasp the concept is in Eggsactly a Dozen. Once you know what dozenal counting is, you can look at Multiplication in Base Twelve to see the beautiful patterns in the dozenal base, read about the dozenal divisibility tests, then continue on to practice your dozenal arithmetic. Learn how to convert decimals to dozenals and back again by visiting Decimal-Dozenal Conversion Rules. Soon, you'll be using twelve as a number base, multiplying and dividing, adding and subtracting, just as well (better!) than in decimal. Dozens are all around us, every day; in our packaging, our units of measure, on the clock on the wall. That’s because twelve is a highly composite number. Peruse these articles to find out how counting in dozens makes math, and life, easier.
Title: Fundamental Operations in the Duodecimal System
Author: Prof. Jay Schiffman
Subject: The four basic functions, as applied to dozenal arithmetic.
Year: 1192
db31315.pdf
Title: A Brief Introduction to Dozenal Counting
Author: Prof. Gene Zirkel
Subject: Basics of base-twelve (dozenal) counting
Year: 11X3
db38206.pdf
Title: Eggsactly a Dozen
Author: Prof. James Malone
Subject: Basic introduction to dozenal counting, by means of eggs.
Year: 1191
db2610b.pdf
Title: Decimal-Dozenal Conversion Rules
Author: Prof. Gene Zirkel
Subject: Rules for converting dozenal to decimal, integers and fractions, by hand.
Year: 11E1
DSA-ConversionRules.pdf
Title: Featured Figures: Basic Operations
Author: Michael deVlieger
Subject: Dozenal addition and multiplication tables.
Year: 11E4
db49224.pdf
Title: Key Dozenal Fractions
Author: Michael deVlieger
Subject: Pictures and graphs illustrating dozenal's unique fractional properties.
Year: 11E7
db4b224.pdf
Title: Manual of the Dozen System (MODS)
Author: Dozenal Society of America
Subject: Basic introduction to dozenal mathematics; Churchman's metric system; tables.
Year: 1174
ManualOfTheDozenSystem1174-web.pdf
Title: The Aspirant's Tests
Author: Dozenal Society of America
Subject: Tests for proficiency in the dozenal system.
Year:
DSA_aspirants_test.pdf
Title: Dozenal Divisibility Tests Quick Guide
Author: Treisaran
Subject: Dozenal divisibility tests
Year: 11E9
DSA_treisaran_div_tests.pdf
Title: The Number Rhyme
Author: Donald P. Goodman III
Subject: A simple rhyme teaching counting and the basic characteristics of number one to a dozen.
Year: 11E9
DSA_number_rhyme.pdf
Title: RAENBO Dozenals
Author: Timothy Travis
Subject: Travis' RAENBO system of dozenals.
Year: 11E9
DSA_RAENBO_all.pdf
Title: Duodenal System of Arithmetic, Measures, Weights and Coins
Author: John William Nystrom
Subject: A defense of dozenal arithmetic and measurement, along with proposed symbols, nomenclature, and metrics.
Year: 1103
DSA_nystrom_duodenal_arith.pdf
Title: Twelve vs. Ten
Author: William B. Smith
Subject: A brief, turn-of-the-century defense of the dozenal base.
Year: 1117
DSA_smith_william_tens_twelves.pdf
Title: A Duodecimal Scale
Author: Dr. Edward Brooks
Subject: A turn-of-the-century account of dozenal arithmetic and notation.
Year: 1104
DSA_brooks_philosophy_arithmetic.pdf
Title: De Arithmetica
Author: Ioannis Caramuelis (Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz)
Subject: Very early exposition of dozenal.
Year: E48
DSA_lobkowitz_duodenaria.pdf
Title: The Duodecimal System of Notation
Author: L. H. Vincent
Subject: A simple, mostly verbal argument for dozenal.
Year: 1131
DSA_vincent_duodecimal.pdf
Title: Collected Works on Reckoning Reform
Author: Sir Isaac Pitman
Subject: Collected works of Sir Isaac Pitman on the dozenal base.
Year: 10X8
DSA_pitman_collected.pdf
Title: Mathamerica
Author: Grover Cleveland Perry
Subject: A stridently patriotic argument in favor of dozenals from an interwar Protestant American viewpoint.
Year: 1149
DSA_mathamerica.pdf